Selective TSV formation by macropore array localization. (a) Through-silicon macropores are locally etched by electrochemical etching through an inert mask. (b) The seed layer is deposited on the backside of the substrate. (c) The macropores are filled with copper by bottom-up electrochemical deposition.
Defforge et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2012 7:375 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-375