Preparation and optimization of matrix metalloproteinase-1-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide-co-caprolactone) nanoparticles with rotatable central composite design and response surface methodology
1 Department of Pediatric Urology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 1665 KongJiang Road, Shanghai, 200092, People's Republic of China
2 Department of Bio-Nano Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication of Ministry of Education, Institute of Micro-Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240, People's Republic of China
3 Department of Urology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 1665 KongJiang Road, Shanghai, 200092, People's Republic of China
Nanoscale Research Letters 2012, 7:359 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-359Published: 2 July 2012
Matrix metalloproteases are key regulatory molecules in the breakdown of extracellular matrix and in inflammatory processes. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) can significantly enhance muscle regeneration by promoting the formation of myofibers and degenerating the fibrous tissue. Herein, we prepared novel MMP-1-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide-co-caprolactone) (PLGA-PCL) nanoparticles (NPs) capable of sustained release of MMP-1. We established quadratic equations as mathematical models and employed rotatable central composite design and response surface methodology to optimize the preparation procedure of the NPs. Then, characterization of the optimized NPs with respect to particle size distribution, particle morphology, drug encapsulation efficiency, MMP-1 activity assay and in vitro release of MMP-1 from NPs was carried out. The results of mathematical modeling show that the optimal conditions for the preparation of MMP-1-loaded NPs were as follows: 7 min for the duration time of homogenization, 4.5 krpm for the agitation speed of homogenization and 0.4 for the volume ratio of organic solvent phase to external aqueous phase. The entrapment efficiency and the average particle size of the NPs were 38.75 ± 4.74% and 322.7 ± 18.1 nm, respectively. Further scanning electron microscopy image shows that the NPs have a smooth and spherical surface, with mean particle size around 300 nm. The MMP-1 activity assay and in vitro drug release profile of NPs indicated that the bioactivity of the enzyme can be reserved where the encapsulation allows prolonged release of MMP-1 over 60 days. Taken together, we reported here novel PLGA-PCL NPs for sustained release of MMP-1, which may provide an ideal MMP-1 delivery approach for tissue reconstruction therapy.