Synthesis and characterization of maleimide-functionalized polystyrene-SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposites by sol–gel process
1 Lab of Nano-micro Device, Department of Electronic Engineering, College of Electronics and Information Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju, 501-759, South Korea
2 Chemical Engineering Area, CSIR-Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai, 600020, India
Nanoscale Research Letters 2012, 7:350 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-350Published: 27 June 2012
Maleimide-functionalized polystyrene (PSMA-SiO2/TiO2) hybrid nanocomposites were prepared by sol–gel reaction starting from tratraethoxysilane (TEOS) and titanium isopropoxide in the solution of polystyrene maleimide in 1,4-dioxane. The hybrid films were obtained by the hydrolysis and polycondensation of TEOS and titanium isopropoxide in maleimide-functionalized polystyrene solution followed by the Michael addition reaction. The transparency of polymer (PSMA-SiO2/TiO2) hybrid was prepared from polystyrene titanium isopropoxide using the γ-aminopropyltriethoxy silane as crosslinking agent by in situ sol–gel process via covalent bonding between the organic–inorganic hybrid nanocomposites. The maleimide-functionalized polystyrene was synthesized by Friedel-Crafts reaction from N-choloromethyl maleimide. The FTIR spectroscopy data conformed the occurrence of Michael addition reaction between the pendant maleimide moieties of the styrene and γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. The chemical structure and morphology of PSMA-SiO2/TiO2 hybrid nanocomposites were characterized by FTIR, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13 C NMR, SEM, XRD, and TEM analyses. The results also indicate that the inorganic particles are much smaller in the ternary systems than in the binary systems; the shape of the inorganic particles and compatibility for maleimide-functionalized polystrene and inorganic moieties are varied with the ratio of the inorganic moieties in the hybrids. Furthermore, TGA and DSC results indicate that the thermal stability of maleimide-functionalized polystyrene was enhanced through the incorporation of the inorganic moieties in the hybrid materials.