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Application of anodized titanium for enhanced recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells

Iman Moradi1, Mohaddeseh Behjati2* and Mohammad Kazemi3

Author affiliations

1 Nanotechnology Consultancy & Development Center (NCDC), Via Svizzera 16, Padova, 35127, Italy

2 Department of Cardiology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, 8174673461, Iran

3 Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, 8174673461, Iran

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Citation and License

Nanoscale Research Letters 2012, 7:298  doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-298

Published: 7 June 2012



To study the efficacy of an effective anodized titanium surface with enhanced attachment of endothelial progenitor cell (EPC).


In-stent restenosis is a major obstacle for vascular patency after catheter-based intravascular interventions. Recently, stents that capture EPCs have been paid attention in order to make a functional endothelialized layer at the site of stent-induced endothelial denudation. Anodized titanium has been shown to enhance stem cell attachment. Anodization is a quick and inexpensive method, which can provide suitable stent surface.


Surface topography was examined by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Substrates were co-cultured with EPCs at second passage in 24-well culture plates. Evaluation of cell growth, proliferation, viability, surface cytotoxicity and cell adhesion was performed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride staining. For platelet attachment, platelets added to substrates were evaluated under SEM.


The average MTT values for tissue culture polystyrene plate, unanodized and anodized titanium with nanostructure were equal to 0.49, 0.16 and 0.72, respectively (P < 0.05). The surface had no cytotoxic effects on cells. The average cell attachment results showed that 9,955 ± 461.18, 3,300 ± 197.98 and 11,359 ± 458.10 EPCs were attached per well of tissue culture polystyrene plate, unanodized and anodized titanium surfaces, respectively (P < 0.05).


Anodized titanium surfaces can be potentially applied for devices that need enhanced recruitment of EPCs. This unique property makes these anodized surfaces good and cheap candidates for designing cardiovascular medical devices as endovascular stents.

endothelial progenitor cell; cell attachment; cell proliferation; anodized titanium