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Open Access Highly Accessed Nano Express

Gold and silver nanoparticles for biomolecule immobilization and enzymatic catalysis

Galina A Petkova1, Кamil Záruba1, Pavel Žvátora1 and Vladimír Král12*

Author affiliations

1 Department of Analytical Chemisty, Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, Technicka 5, Dejvice, Prague 6,, 166 28, Czech Republic

2 Zentiva (part of the Sanofi-Aventis Group), U Kabelovny 130, Dolni Mecholupy, Prague 10,, 102 37, Czech Republic

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Citation and License

Nanoscale Research Letters 2012, 7:287  doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-287

Published: 1 June 2012

Abstract

In this work, a simple method for alcohol synthesis with high enantiomeric purity was proposed. For this, colloidal gold and silver surface modifications with 3-mercaptopropanoic acid and cysteamine were used to generate carboxyl and amine functionalized gold and silver nanoparticles of 15 and 45 nm, respectively. Alcohol dehydrogenase from Thermoanaerobium brockii (TbADH) and its cofactor (NADPH) were physical and covalent (through direct adsorption and using cross-linker) immobilized on nanoparticles' surface. In contrast to the physical and covalent immobilizations that led to a loss of 90% of the initial enzyme activity and 98% immobilization, the use of a cross-linker in immobilization process promoted a loss to 30% of the initial enzyme activity and >92% immobilization. The yield of NADPH immobilization was about 80%. The best results in terms of activity were obtained with Ag-citr nanoparticle functionalized with carboxyl groups (Ag-COOH), Au-COOH(CTAB), and Au-citr functionalized with amine groups and stabilized with CTAB (Au-NH2(CTAB)) nanoparticles treated with 0.7% and 1.0% glutaraldehyde. Enzyme conformation upon immobilization was studied using fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopies. Shift in ellipticity at 222 nm with about 4 to 7 nm and significant decreasing in fluorescence emission for all bioconjugates were observed by binding of TbADH to silver/gold nanoparticles. Emission redshifting of 5 nm only for Ag-COOH-TbADH bioconjugate demonstrated change in the microenvironment of TbADH. Enzyme immobilization on glutaraldehyde-treated Au-NH2(CTAB) nanoparticles promotes an additional stabilization preserving about 50% of enzyme activity after 15 days storage. Nanoparticles attached-TbADH-NADPH systems were used for enantioselective (ee > 99%) synthesis of (S)-7-hydroxy-2-tetralol.

Keywords:
Enzyme immobilization; Cofactor immobilization; Gold and silver nanoparticles; Spectroscopies; conformational change; Enantioselectivity