Schematic diagram and AFM image of a finished memory device. (a) Sample geometry of a finished memory device. (b) AFM image of the memory device. The contrast comes from the slightly different crystallization of PVDF-TrFE on SiO2, graphene, and Au electrodes, respectively.
Liu et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2012 7:285 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-285