Scheme for NA positions of a flexible film including a brittle material (here, ITO). (a) Without and (b) with a buffer layer. By adopting a buffer layer, NA can be controlled to be located to the brittle material, leading to high bendability. (c, d) Illustrations of corresponding stress distributions for (a) and (b), respectively. (E: elastic modulus, t: thickness, T: tensile stress, C: compressive stress).
Lee et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2012 7:256 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-256