Hopping conduction and trap energy level in HRS. Characteristics of Ln (current density) versus electric field between 1.5 × 105 V/cm and 2.5 × 105 V/cm for the extraction of trap spacing in the hopping conduction in HRS (a). Arrhenius plot of the hopping conduction for the extraction of trap energy level (b). a, Mean spacing between trap sites; Φt, trap energy level; T, absolute temperature; K1, Boltzmann's constant.
Chiu et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2012 7:178 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-178