Figure 2.

Electron flow for different configurations of device. (a) Electrons flow from hot end to cold end due to temperature gradient. (b) An induced emf is generated due to temperature gradient. (c) Voltage is applied to nullify the current due to temperature gradient. The voltage at which current becomes zero is called Seebeck voltage.

Kumar et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2012 7:169   doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-169
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