Schematic representation of the preparation of PCBM/TiO2 electrode and subsequent electron irradiation. (A) Deposition of TiO2 paste by doctor blade technique. (B) Formation of TiO2 nanoparticle film by annealing the as-deposited TiO2 paste at 450°C for 30 min. (C) Fabrication of PCBM/TiO2 electrode by immersing TiO2 electrode in 1.5 mM PCBM solution for 5 h. (D) Electron irradiation on PCBM/TiO2 electrode at different fluences.
Yoo et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2012 7:142 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-142