Photographs of as-deposited Cu/Ti thin film and electrodeposited Cu film and SEM images of nanowires. Photographs of the (a) as-deposited Cu/Ti thin film on a Si substrate and the electrodeposited Cu film-coated Si samples (b) before and (c) after thermal oxidation annealing. (d) A typical cross-sectional SEM image of nanowires grown on an oxidized Cu film-coated Si substrate. (e) A typical high-magnification SEM image of an individual nanowire.
Cheng and Chen Nanoscale Research Letters 2012 7:119 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-119