Characterization of surface topography (a) FESEM image of an anodized Ti wire with a diameter of 127 μm; (b) FESEM image of outer surface of an as-anodized Ti wire. (c) Large-scale FESEM image of an anodized Ti wire after chemical etching or ultrasonication. All exposed TiO2 nanotubes were open-ended and the broken part in the porous ATO membrane shows clearly the side-view of the nanotubes. (d) Enlarged FESEM image of individual TiO2 nanotubes which average diameter is about 105 nm.
Yu et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2011 6:94 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-94