(a) Model for an Aharonov-Bohm (AB) ring with an embedded quantum dot. A quantum dot with an energy level ε0 is connected to two external leads by tunnel couplings, VL and VR. Another arm of the AB ring (reference arm) and external leads are represented by a one-dimensional tight-binding model. The reference arm includes a tunnel barrier with transfer integral W. The magnetic flux Φ penetrating the ring is considered as an AB phase ϕ = 2πΦ/Φ0 with flux quantum Φ0 = h/e. (b) The density of states in the lead for the reduced model, ν(εk) in Eq. (6). ν(εk) oscillates with the period of εT, the Thouless energy for the ballistic systems. Its amplitude and phase depend on the AB phase ϕ.
Yoshii and Eto Nanoscale Research Letters 2011 6:604 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-604