Fabrication of superhydrophobic and antibacterial surface on cotton fabric by doped silica-based sols with nanoparticles of copper
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Nanoscale Research Letters 2011, 6:594 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-594Published: 15 November 2011
The study discussed the synthesis of silica sol using the sol-gel method, doped with two different amounts of Cu nanoparticles. Cotton fabric samples were impregnated by the prepared sols and then dried and cured. To block hydroxyl groups, some samples were also treated with hexadecyltrimethoxysilane. The average particle size of colloidal silica nanoparticles were measured by the particle size analyzer. The morphology, roughness, and hydrophobic properties of the surface fabricated on cotton samples were analyzed and compared via the scanning electron microscopy, the transmission electron microscopy, the scanning probe microscopy, with static water contact angle (SWC), and water shedding angle measurements. Furthermore, the antibacterial efficiency of samples was quantitatively evaluated using AATCC 100 method. The addition of 0.5% (wt/wt) Cu into silica sol caused the silica nanoparticles to agglomerate in more grape-like clusters on cotton fabrics. Such fabricated surface revealed the highest value of SWC (155° for a 10-μl droplet) due to air trapping capability of its inclined structure. However, the presence of higher amounts of Cu nanoparticles (2% wt/wt) in silica sol resulted in the most slippery smooth surface on cotton fabrics. All fabricated surfaces containing Cu nanoparticles showed the perfect antibacterial activity against both of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.