ZnO nanocrystalline film synthesis system. Thermal plasma chemical vapor deposition system for depositing ZnO nanocrystalline thin films which consists of a 13.56-MHz RF generator and a matching network, induction coil, zinc source (nickel heating chamber), and substrate holder. (a) The synthesis chamber showing the position of the nickel heating chamber in relation to the induction coil. (b) When RF is activated, the nickel heating chamber is inductively heated by Joule heating and by the inductively coupled argon/oxygen plasma. Molten zinc is bombarded by high-energy argon, producing zinc ions that are ejected from the emission orifice. Subsequently, zinc vapor reacts with oxygen to form ZnO, which deposits on the growth substrate. (c) Anatomy of the synthesis setup showing the location of the solid zinc disc that is enclosed within a nickel heating chamber and the formation of a plasma jet. (d) Infrared image of an exposed nickel chamber showing uniform temperature distribution across both nickel and zinc.
Pedersen et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2011 6:568 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-568