ZnO nanoseeds on the FTO surface. (A) FESEM image of initial ZnO nanoseeds on the FTO surface and (B) after being grown for approximately 5 min in the mixture of 10 mL of 0.01 M Zn(CH3COO)2 and 36 mM ammonia (standard reaction) producing vertically oriented ZnO quasi-NRs. (C) and (D) are its cross-section and high magnification images, respectively. Dotted circles in Figure 1D indicate available free-standing individual ZnO quasi-NRs. Scale bar is 100 nm.
Ali Umar et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2011 6:564 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-564