Schematic view of the biofunctionalization of ZnO. In a toluene environment, (a) the bifunctional GOPS molecule is attached to the ZnO nanowire surface. In a second step, (b) the oligonucleotide is linked to the epoxy group of the GOPS .
Niepelt et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2011 6:511 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-511