Figure 6.

Schematic overview of research directions on individual dopants or coupled dopants in semiconductor devices. Individual donors, either isolated or in a many-donor channel, can be at the basis of a variety of applications: single dopant transistors, memory or turnstile devices in double- or multiple-dopant systems, and dopant optoelectronic devices based on photon-dopant interaction. Complementary directions can be towards dopant quantum computing or spintronics applications, as well as towards addressing the issue of random dopants in FETs. KFM can provide a way to directly observe effects associated with discrete dopants in operating devices.

Moraru et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2011 6:479   doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-479
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