KFM observation of discrete dopants in device channel. (a) Setup for LT-KFM measurements, showing in the inset the topography of the measured channel area. (b) Simulated surface electronic potential map due to ionized P donors in a thin Si layer. (c) Measured electronic potential maps at the surface of P-doped SOI-FETs (lower panels are line profiles through some of the dark spots, i.e., regions of lower electronic potential).
Moraru et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2011 6:479 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-479