Table 2

Thermophysical properties of nanofluids

Properties

Correlations

Nanofluids

Ref


Density

ρnf = ϕρp + (1 - ϕ)ρbf

-

Specific heat

(ρCnf) = ϕ(ρCp)p + (1 - ϕ) (ρCp)bf

[21]

Dynamic viscosity

μnf = μbf (T) (1 + 2.5ϕ)

Water/Cu, gold, CNT, grapheme

[22]

μnf = μbf (T) (1 + 39.11ϕ + 533.9ϕ2)

Water/alumina

[11]

μnf = μbf (T) (1 + 5.45ϕ + 108.2ϕ2)

Water/titania

[11]

μnf = μbf (T) (1 + 56.5ϕ)

Water/silica

[23]

μnf = μbf (T) (1 + 11ϕ)

EG/Cu, gold, CNT, grapheme

[24]

μnf = μbf (T) (1 - 0.19ϕ + 3.6ϕ2)

EG/alumina

[25]

μnf = μbf (T) (1 + 10.6ϕ + 112.36ϕ2)

EG/titania

[26]

EG/silica

[27]

Thermal conductivity

knf - kbf = kbf (0.764ϕ + 0.0186T - 0.46215)

Water/alumina, EG/alumina

[17]

knf = kbf (1 + 2.92ϕ - 11.99ϕ2)

Water/titania, EG/titania

[11]

Other nanofluids

Maxwell's model


Savithiri et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2011 6:471   doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-471

Open Data