Figure 4.

The formation of interlayer bridging bonds in a CNS. (a) The graphene with patterned vacancies. (b) The evolution of the number of interlayer bridging bond in the CNS and the temperature change as a function of time, respectively. Note that the bridging bonds remain after cooling down to room temperature. (c) The end view of the interlayer-bridged CNS after the heat treatment. The color shades represent potential energy level of the carbon atoms. Here, the SWCNT housed inside the CNS is not shown for visual clarity.

Zhang and Li Nanoscale Research Letters 2011 6:470   doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-470
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