Figure 2.

a Raman spectra of P-doped ZnO nanowires b PL spectra of P-doped ZnO nanowires at room temperature. Inset: detail of the defect-related emission part in PL c Atomic configurations of PO and PZn + 2VZn in ZnO, respectively. Big red balls represent oxygen atoms and small gray balls represent zinc atoms. Phosphorus atoms and Zinc vacancy are marked by P and VZn, respectively d EELS spectra obtained at the P L23 peak in P-doped ZnO nanowires with the referenced P L23 peaks in Zn3(PO4)2, P2O5 and Zn3P2, respectively.

Gao et al. Nanoscale Res Lett 2011 6:45   doi:10.1007/s11671-010-9805-9