Additional file 1.

Thermodynamics of HAuCl4 reduction in aqueous solutions using carbon monoxide as a reducing agent. The entire process is performed between 20 and 22°C and a pressure of 1 atm. The pH of the solution varies as a function of HAuCl4 concentration. Nernst equation describes potential of electrochemical cell as a function of concentrations of ions taking part in the reaction:


where E0 is the standard reduction potential, R is the absolute gas constant = 8.31441 J/(mol K), F is Faraday constant = 96484.6 C/mol, T is the absolute temperature = 295.15 K, n is number or electrons, and Q is the reaction quotient. RT/F can be considered constant.



The CO gas is injected at a flow rate of 25.45 mL/min in 40 mL aqueous sample volumes. A water saturation constant of 0.26 g per 1 kg at 22°C is used.







Redox potentials (7) and (8) are given at pH 0. The redox potentials are pH-dependent and must be adjusted for the varying pH values.

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Young et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2011 6:428   doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-428