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Enhancement of critical heat flux in nucleate boiling of nanofluids: a state-of-art review

Hyungdae Kim

Author affiliations

Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyunggi 446-701, Republic of Korea

Citation and License

Nanoscale Research Letters 2011, 6:415  doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-415

Published: 9 June 2011


Nanofluids (suspensions of nanometer-sized particles in base fluids) have recently been shown to have nucleate boiling critical heat flux (CHF) far superior to that of the pure base fluid. Over the past decade, numerous experimental and analytical studies on the nucleate boiling CHF of nanofluids have been conducted. The purpose of this article is to provide an exhaustive review of these studies. The characteristics of CHF enhancement in nanofluids are systemically presented according to the effects of the primary boiling parameters. Research efforts to identify the effects of nanoparticles underlying irregular enhancement phenomena of CHF in nanofluids are then presented. Also, attempts to explain the physical mechanism based on available CHF theories are described. Finally, future research needs are identified.