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Anomalous heat transfer modes of nanofluids: a review based on statistical analysis

Antonis Sergis* and Yannis Hardalupas

Author Affiliations

The Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK

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Nanoscale Research Letters 2011, 6:391  doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-391

Published: 19 May 2011


This paper contains the results of a concise statistical review analysis of a large amount of publications regarding the anomalous heat transfer modes of nanofluids. The application of nanofluids as coolants is a novel practise with no established physical foundations explaining the observed anomalous heat transfer. As a consequence, traditional methods of performing a literature review may not be adequate in presenting objectively the results representing the bulk of the available literature. The current literature review analysis aims to resolve the problems faced by researchers in the past by employing an unbiased statistical analysis to present and reveal the current trends and general belief of the scientific community regarding the anomalous heat transfer modes of nanofluids. The thermal performance analysis indicated that statistically there exists a variable enhancement for conduction, convection/mixed heat transfer, pool boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux modes. The most popular proposed mechanisms in the literature to explain heat transfer in nanofluids are revealed, as well as possible trends between nanofluid properties and thermal performance. The review also suggests future experimentation to provide more conclusive answers to the control mechanisms and influential parameters of heat transfer in nanofluids.