Table 2

Viscosity values

Sl.no.

Reference

Nanoparticle used

Basefluid

Concentration

Temp range

Percentage enhancement in viscosity


1

Praveen et al. [15]

CuO (29 nm)

60:40 (in weight) ethylene glycol and water mixture

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.12%

-35 to 50°C

For 6.12% conc: 4.5 times @ 35°C and 3 times @ 50°C

2

Nguyen et al. [3,16]

CuO (29 nm)

Al2O3(36 and 47 nm)

Water

1-12%

22 to 75°C

CuO @ 9%: 7-10 times

Al2O3(36 nm) @ 9%: 4.5-3.5 times

Al2O3(47 nm) @ 9%: 5.4-4.4 times

3

Chen et al. [17]

Titanate nanotubes (diameter approx. 10 nm, length approx. 100 nm, aspect ratio approx. 10)

Ethylene glycol

0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0% by weight

20-60°C

@ 8%: High shear viscosity is in the range of 10-35 m Pa s

4

Phuoc et al. [18]

Fe2O3 (20-40 nm)

Deionized water containing 0.2% polymer by weight as a dispersant.

1, 2, 3, 4%

25°C

@ 2%: Infinite viscosity is 12.25 cP for 0.2% PEO (Polyethylene oxide) surfactant, and 2.58 cP for 0.2% PVP (Polyvinylpyrrolidone) surfactant

5

Garg et al. [19]

MWCNT (multi-walled carbon nanotube) (diameter of 10-20 nm, length of 0.5-40 μm)

Deionized water with 0.25% by mass of gum Arabic

1% by mass

15 and 30°C

Viscosity of nanofluids increases with sonication time. Beyond a critical sonication time it decreases due to increased breakage of CNTs

6

Murshed et al. [20]

TiO2 (15 nm)/Al2O3 (80 nm)

Deionized water with Cetyl

Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) surfactant (0.1 mM)

1-5% by volume

-

@ 5% of Al2O3 viscosity increases by 82%

@ 4% of TiO2 viscosity increases by 82%

7

Chena et al. [21]

TiO2 (25 nm) and TNT (Titanate nanotubes) (diameter approx. 10 nm, length approx. 100 nm, aspect ratio approx. 10)

Water, ethylene glycol

0.1-1.8% by volume

-

@ 0.6% of water-TNT 80% increase in viscosity

@ 1.8% EG-TNT 70% increase in viscosity

@1.8% EG-TiO2 20% increase in viscosity

8

Duangthongsuk et al. [4]

TiO2 (21 nm)

Water

0.2, 0.6, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% with pH values of 7.5, 7.1, 7.0, 6.8, and 6.5,

15, 25 and 30°C

@ 15°C for the conc. range of 0.2-2% viscosity increases by 4-15%.

9

Lee et al. [22]

Al2O3 (30 ± 5 nm)

Deionized water (DI)

0.01-0.3 vol.%

21-39°C

@ 21°C for the conc. range of 0.01-0.3% viscosity is enhanced by 0.08-2.9%


Comparison of viscosity enhancement in various nanofluids.

Thomas and Balakrishna Panicker Sobhan Nanoscale Research Letters 2011 6:377   doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-377

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