Low-lying energies for (a) one, (b) two, and (c) three electrons in the type-II quantum dot, as a function of the magnetic flux Φ. The dot radius R equals to the effective Bohr radius aB = 4πϵħ2/mee2. Solid and dash lines indicate spin-singlet and triplet, respectively, in (b), whereas they indicate quartet and doublet in (c). The period of AB oscillation becomes h/Ne for N electrons.
Okuyama et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2011 6:351 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-351