Table 1

Enhancement of thermal conductivity of water on addition of nanoparticles reported in the literature [13,14,17-42].

Particle material

Particle size (nm)

Concentration (vol.%)

Thermal conductivity ratio (Keff/Kf)

Remarks

Reference


Cu

100

2.50-7.50

1.24-1.78

Laurate salt Surfactant

[18]

100-200

0.05

1.116

Spherical and square

[19]

Not available

0.05

1.036

-

130-200

0.05

1.085

Spherical and square

75-100

0.1

1.238

Spherical and square

50-100

0.1

1.238

Spherical and square

100-300

0.1

1.110

Spherical, square, and needle

130-300

0.2

1.097

Spherical

200 × 500

0.2

1.132

Needle

250

0.2

1.036

Spherical, square, and needle

Ag

60-70

0.001

1.30

30°C

[20]

1.04

40°C

8-15

0.10-0.39

1.03-1.11

-

[21]

Au

10-20

0.00013

1.03

30°C (citerate reduced)

[20]

1.05

40°C (citerate reduced)

0.00026

1.05

30°C (citerate reduced)

1.08

60°C (citerate reduced)

Fe

10

0.2-0.55

1.14-1.18

-

[22]

Al2Cu

30

1.0-2.0

1.48-1.98

-

[23]

65

1.4-1.78

-

104

1.35-1.60

-

Ag2Al

30

1.0-2.0

1.5-2.1

-

[23]

80

1.4-1.9

-

120

1.3-1.75

-

CuO

36

5

1.6

-

[13]

23.6

1.00-3.41

1.03-1.12

-

[24]

23

4.50-9.70

1.18-1.36

-

[17]

28.6

1.00-4.00

1.07-1.14

21°C

[25]

1.22-1.26

36°C

1.29-1.36

51°C

-

1.00

1.05

-

[26]

25

0.03-0.30

1.04-1.12

pH = 3

[27]

1.02-1.07

pH = 6

29

2.00-6.00

1.35-1.36

28.9°C

[28]

1.35-1.50

31.3°C

1.38-1.51

33.4°C

29

0-16

1.00-1.24

-

[29]

Al2O3

13

1.30-4.30

1.109-1.324

31.85°C

[30]

1.100-1.296

46.85°C

1.092-1.262

66.85°C

38.4

1.00-4.30

1.03-1.10

-

[24]

28

3.00-5.00

1.12-1.16

-

[17]

60.4

1.80-5.00

1.07-1.21

-

[31]

60.4

5.00

1.23

-

[32]

38.4

1.00-4.00

1.02-1.09

21°C

[25]

1.07-1.16

36°C

1.10-1.24

51°C

27-56

1.6

1.10

Sodium dodeculbenzene sulfonate

[33]

11

1.00

1.09

21°C

[34]

1.15

71°C

47

1.03

21°C

1.10

71°C

150

1.004

21°C

1.09

71°C

47

4.00

1.08

21°C

1.29

71°C

36

2.0-10.0

1.08-1.11

27.5°C

[28]

1.15-1.22

32.5°C

1.18-1.29

34.7°C

36-47

0-18

1.00-1.31

-

[29]

SiO2

12

1.10-2.30

1.010-1.011

31.85°C

[30]

1.009-1.010

46.85°C

1.10-2.40

1.005-1.007

66.85°C

-

1.00

1.03

-

[26]

15-20

1.00-4.00

1.02-1.05

-

[21]

TiO2

27

3.25-4.30

1.080-1.105

31.85°C

[30]

1.084-1.108

46.85°C

1.075-1.099

86.85°C

15

0.50-5.00

1.05-1.30

Sphere (CTAB)

[35]

10 × 40

1.08-1.33

Rod (CTAB)

SiC

26

4.2

1.158

Sphere

[36]

600

4.00

1.229

Cylinder

MWCNT

15 × 30000

0.40-1.00

1.03-1.07

-

[37]

100 × >50000

0.60

1.38

Sodium dodecyl sulfate

[38]

20-60 dia

0.04-0.84

1.04-1.24

Sodium dodecyl benzene 20°C

[39]

1.05-1.31

Sodium dodecyl benzene 45°C

130 × >10000

0.60

1.34

CATB

[40]

-

0-1 wt%

1.00-1.10

Gum Arabic 20°C

[41]

1.00-1.30

Gum Arabic 25°C

1.00-1.80

Gum Arabic 30°C

-

1.00

1.07

-

[26]

-

0.6

1.39

SDS 0.1 mass%

[42]

1.23

SDS 0.5 m ass%

1.30

SDS 2 mass%

1.28

SDS 3 mass%

1.19

CTAB 0.1 mass%

1.34

CTAB 1 mass%

1.34

CTAB 3 mass%

1.28

CTAB 6 mass%

1.11

Triton 0.17 mass%

1.12

Triton 0.35 mass%

1.13

Triton 0.5 mass%

1.11

Triton 1 mass%

1.28

Nanosperse 0.7 mass%

0.75

1.03

CTAB 1 mass%

1.02

CTAB 3 mass%

1

1.08

CTAB 5.5 mass%


Ramesh and Prabhu Nanoscale Research Letters 2011 6:334   doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-334

Open Data