Figure 1.

Schematic of fabrication process of obtaining TiO2 nanotubes with nanoporous layer on top and complete titania nanoporous (TNP) structure via two-step anodization: (a) Ti-foil, (b) first anodization and formation of TNTs with oxide layer on top, (c) TNTs with clear top end, (d) Ti-substrate after separation of TNTs, (e) TNTs covered with thin nanoporous layer, (f) complete TNP structure with uniform and parallel nanochannels.

Ali et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2011 6:332   doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-332
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