Figure 4.

The normalized thermal conductivity of Cu, CuO, and MWNT nanofluids as a function of the volume fraction. (a) The normalized thermal conductivity of CuO-ethylene glycol nanofluids as a function of volume fraction; (b) the normalized thermal conductivity of MWNT-ethylene glycol nanofluids as a function of volume fraction; (c) the normalized thermal conductivity of MWNT-synthetic engine oil nanofluids as a function of volume fraction; (d) the normalized thermal conductivity of Cu-water nanofluids as a function of the measured time at 0.1 vol.%.

Liu et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2011 6:297   doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-297
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