Table 1

Summary of the main convective and pool boiling nanofluid journal articles in the last seven years

Author names [reference]

Year

Type of boiling

Heater type

Nanofluid

Relevant information


Faulkner et al. [19]

2003

Convective

-

Ceramic nanoparticles in water

Parallel microchannel heat sink

Limited improvement in overall heat transfer rate with nanofluid

Lee and Mudawar [18]

2007

Convective

-

Al2O3 nanoparticles in water

Microchannel (copper) cooling operations

Single-phase, laminar flow → CHF enhancement

Two-phase flow → nanoparticle agglomerates at channel exit, catastrophic failure

Peng et al. [20]

2009a

Convective

-

CuO nanoparticles in R-113

Flow boiling inside copper tube

BHT enhancement (up to 30%)

Enhancement caused by reduction of boundary layer height, due to disturbance of nanoparticles and formation of molecular adsorption layer on nanoparticle surface

Peng et al. [21]

2009b

Convective

-

CuO nanoparticles in R-113

Flow boiling inside copper tube

Frictional pressure drop larger (up to 21%) than pure R-113, and increases with nanoparticle concentration

Boudouh et al. [22]

2010

Convective

-

Copper nanoparticles in water

50 parallel minichannels of dh = 800 μm

Local BHT increases with nanoparticle concentration

Higher ΔP and lower Tsurface with nanofluid compared to pure water at same mass flux

Cu-water nanofluid suitable for microchannel cooling

Kim et al. [23]

2010

Convective

-

Al2O3, ZnO, and Diamond nanoparticles in water

CHF enhancement (up to 53%), increased with mass flux and nanoparticle concentration

BHT small enhancement at low heat flux

Nanoparticle deposition on heater → CHF enhancement

Kim et al. [24]

2010

Convective

-

Al2O3 nanoparticles in water

CHF enhancement (up to 70%) at low nanoparticle concentration (<0.01 vol.%)

Nanoparticle deposition on heater surface → wettability increased

Henderson et al. [25]

2010

Convective

-

SiO2 nanoparticles in R-134a and CuO nanoparticles in R-134a/polyolester oil

BHT deterioration by 55% compared to pure R-134a

Nanoparticle deposition on copper tube walls

Ahn et al. [17]

2010

Convective and pool

Cu plate

Al2O3 nanoparticles in water

CHF enhancement for Pool and Convective boiling

Enhancement due to nanoparticle deposition on heater surface → wettability increased

You et al. [4]

2003

Pool

Cu plate

Al2O3 nanoparticles in water

CHF enhancement (up to 200%)

BHT unchanged

Enhancement not related to increased thermal conductivity of nanofluids

Witharana [26]

2003

Pool

Cu plate

Au nanoparticles in water

BHT increase (between 11 and 21%) at low nanoparticle concentrations (0.001 wt%)

Increasing particle concentration, BHT enhancement increased

Das et al. [13]

2003a

Pool

Cylinder cartridge heater

Al2O3 nanoparticles in water

BHT degradation & wall superheat increase with increasing nanoparticle concentration

Limited application for boiling of nanofluids

Nanoparticle deposition on heater surface

Das et al. [27]

2003b

Pool

Stainless steel tubes

Al2O3 nanoparticles in water

BHT degradation & increase in wall superheat with increasing nanoparticle concentration

Boiling performance strongly dependent on tube diameter

BHT degradation less for narrow channels than for larger channels at high heat flux

Vassallo et al. [28]

2004

Pool

NiCr wire

SiO2 nanoparticles in water

CHF enhancement (up to 60%)

No change in BHT

Wen and Ding [29]

2005

Pool

Stainless steel plate

Al2O3 nanoparticles in water

CHF enhancement (up to 40%)

Nanoparticle deposition on heater surface

Bang and Chang [30]

2005

Pool

Stainless steel plate

Al2O3 nanoparticles in water

CHF enhancement (up to 50%)

BHT degradation

Nanoparticle deposit on heater surface, porous layer formed → wettability increased

Milanova and Kumar [31]

2005

Pool

NiCr wire

SiO2 nanoparticles in water (also in salts and strong electrolyte solution)

CHF enhancement three times greater than with pure water

Nanofluids in salts minimise potential increase in heat transfer due to clustering

Nanofluids in a strong electrolyte, higher CHF obtained than in buffer solutions due to difference in surface area

Kim et al. [32]

2006

Pool

Stainless steel plate

Al2O3, ZrO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles in water

Nanoparticle deposition on heater surface

Irregular porous structure formed

Increased wettability → CHF enhancement

Kim et al. [33]

2006a

Pool

NiCr wire

TiO2 nanoparticles in water

CHF enhancement (up to 200%)

Kim et al. [34]

2006b

Pool

NiCr and Ti wires

Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles in water

CHF enhancement

Nanoparticle deposition on heated wire

CHF of pure water measured using a nanoparticle-coated heater

Nanoparticle deposition on heater → CHF enhancement

Chopkar et al. [35]

2007

Pool

Cu surface

ZrO2 nanoparticles in water

BHT unchanged

Surfactants added to nanofluid as a stabiliser

Boiling renders heater surface smoother

Kim et al. [36]

2007

Pool

Stainless steel wire

Al2O3, ZrO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles in water

CHF enhancement (up to 80%) at low concentrations (<0.1 vol.%)

Nanoparticle deposition on heater surface → porous layer, wettability increased

BHT deterioration

Kim et al. [37]

2007

Pool

NiCr wire

Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles in water

CHF enhancement (up to 100%)

Nanoparticle deposition on heater surface

Increased wettability → CHF enhancement

Park and Jung [38]

2007

Pool

Stainless steel tube

Carbon nanotubes (CNT) in water and R-22

CNTs increase BHT (up to 29%) for both base fluids

No surface fouling observed with CNTs

Ding et al. [39]

2007

Pool

Stainless steel plate

Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles in water

BHT enhancement for both TiO2 and Al2O3

BHT enhancement increases with nanoparticle concentration, and enhancement is more sensitive for TiO2 than Al2O3 → nanoparticle properties affect BHT

Coursey and Kim [40]

2008

Pool

Cu and CuO plates, and glass, and gold coated plates

Al2O3 nanoparticles in ethanol and also in water

Strong relationship between boiling performance and fluid/surface combination and particle concentration

CHF enhancement (up to 37% for poor wetting system)

CHF enhancement mechanism is ability of fluid to improve surface wettability

Surface treatment alone resulted in similar CHF enhancement as nanofluids, but at 20°C lower wall superheat

Milanova and Kumar [41]

2008

Pool

NiCr wire

SiO2 nanoparticles in water

CHF enhancement 50% with no nanoparticle deposition on wire

CHF enhancement three times greater with nanoparticle deposition

Liu and Liao [42]

2008

Pool

Cu plate

CuO and SiO2 nanoparticles in water and (C2H5OH)

BHT degradation as compared to pure base fluids

CHF enhancement

Nanoparticle deposition on heater surface → wettability increased

Trisaksri and Wongwises [43]

2009

Pool

Cu cylindrical tube

TiO2 nanoparticles in R-141b

BHT deteriorated with an increase in nanoparticle concentration

At low concentrations (0.01 vol%), no effect on BHT

Golubovic et al. [44]

2009

Pool

NiCr wire

Al2O3 and Bismuth oxide (Bi2O3) nanoparticles in water

CHF enhancement (up to 50% for Al2O3 and 33% for Bi2O3)

CHF increases with nanoparticle concentration, until a certain value of heat flux

Average particle size has negligible effect on CHF

Nanoparticle material effects CHF

Nanoparticle deposition on heater surface → wettability increased

Kim et al. [45]

2010

Pool

NiCr wire

Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles in water

CHF enhancement, with large wall superheat

Nanoparticle deposition on heater surface, surface modification results in same CHF enhancement in pure water as for nanofluids

Nanoparticle layer increases stability of evaporating microlayer under bubble

Soltani et al. [46]

2010

Pool

Stainless steel cartridge heater

Al2O3 nanoparticles in CMC solution (carboxy methyl cellulose)

BHT degradation, more pronounced at higher CMC concentrations

BHT enhanced with nanoparticles and CMC solution, and BHT increases with nanoparticle concentration (up to 25%)

Liu et al. [47]

2010

Pool

Cu plate

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in water

CHF and BHT enhancement

CNT concentration has strong influence on both BHT and CHF enhancement, an optimal mass concentration of CNTs exists

Decrease in pressure, increase in CHF and BHT enhancement

CNT porous layer deposited on heater surface after boiling

Kwark et al. [15]

2010

Pool

Cu plate

Al2O3, CuO and diamond nanoparticles in water

CHF enhancement

CHF increases with nanoparticle concentration, until a certain heat flux

CHF enhancement potential decreases with increasing system pressure

BHT coefficient unchanged

After repeated testing, CHF remains unchanged, but BHT degrades

3 nanofluids exhibit same performance

Nanoparticle deposit on heater surface

Investigated mechanisms behind nanoparticle adhesion and surface deposit

Suriyawong and Wongwises [48]

2010

Pool

Cu and Al plates

TiO2 nanoparticles in water

2 surface roughness (0.2 and 4 μm)

4 μm roughness gives higher BHT than 0.2 μm roughness

Copper surfaces

At low nanoparticle concentrations BHT increased (15% at 0.2 μm, and 4% at 4 μm roughness)

Aluminium surfaces

BHT degraded for all nanoparticle concentrations and surface roughness


Barber et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2011 6:280   doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-280

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