Fabrication of Nickel Nanostructure Arrays Via a Modified Nanosphere Lithography
Bio Medical and Micro Engineering Research Centre, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
Nanoscale Res Lett 2011, 6:25 doi:10.1007/s11671-010-9770-3Published: 2 September 2010
In this paper, we present a modified nanosphere lithographic scheme that is based on the self-assembly and electroforming techniques. The scheme was demonstrated to fabricate a nickel template of ordered nanobowl arrays together with a nickel nanostructure array-patterned glass substrate. The hemispherical nanobowls exhibit uniform sizes and smooth interior surfaces, and the shallow nanobowls with a flat bottom on the glass substrate are interconnected as a net structure with uniform thickness. A multiphysics model based on the level set method (LSM) was built up to understand this fabricating process by tracking the interface between the growing nickel and the electrolyte. The fabricated nickel nanobowl template can be used as a mold of long lifetime in soft lithography due to the high strength of nickel. The nanostructure–patterned glass substrate can be used in optical and magnetic devices due to their shape effects. This fabrication scheme can also be extended to a wide range of metals and alloys.