Distribution of terms in square temperature gradient. Distribution of , Pc2 and negative and positive terms of Pc3 are shown for Cu(100 nm)/DIW nanofluids at (a) Φ = 0.001, (b) Φ = 0.005 and (c) Φ = 0.01. Reprint from S. Kondaraju, E. K. Jin and J. S. Lee, Investigation of heat transfer in turbulent nanofluids using direct numerical simulations, 81, 016304, 2010. "Copyright 2010 by the American Physical Society."
Kondaraju and Lee Nanoscale Research Letters 2011 6:239 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-239