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Experimental study and analysis of lubricants dispersed with nano Cu and TiO2 in a four-stroke two wheeler

Pullela K Sarma1*, Vadapalli Srinivas1, Vedula Dharma Rao2 and Ayyagari Kiran Kumar3

Author affiliations

1 GITAM University, Visakhapatnam 530045, India

2 Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003, India

3 DMSSVH College of Engineering, Machilipatnam 521002, Andhra Pradesh, India

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Citation and License

Nanoscale Research Letters 2011, 6:233  doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-233

Published: 17 March 2011


The present investigation summarizes detailed experimental studies with standard lubricants of commercial quality known as Racer-4 of Hindustan Petroleum Corporation (India) dispersed with different mass concentrations of nanoparticles of Cu and TiO2. The test bench is fabricated with a four-stroke Hero-Honda motorbike hydraulically loaded at the rear wheel with proper instrumentation to record the fuel consumption, the load on the rear wheel, and the linear velocity. The whole range of data obtained on a stationery bike is subjected to regression analysis to arrive at various relationships between fuel consumption as a function of brake power, linear velocity, and percentage mass concentration of nanoparticles in the lubricant. The empirical relation correlates with the observed data with reasonable accuracy. Further, extension of the analysis by developing a mathematical model has revealed a definite improvement in brake thermal efficiency which ultimately affects the fuel economy by diminishing frictional power in the system with the introduction of nanoparticles into the lubricant. The performance of the engine seems to be better with nano Cu-Racer-4 combination than the one with nano TiO2.