Table 1

Summary of experimental studies on convective heat transfer properties of nanofluids



Flow nature


Pak and Cho [91]

dp = 13 nm spherical Al2O3-water

dp = 27 nm spherical TiO2-water


Nu is 30% larger than conventional base fluid and larger than Dittus-Boelter prediction

Li and Xuan [92]

dp < 100 nm spherical Cu-water


Nu is larger than Dittus-Boelter prediction when volume fraction φ > 0.5%

Wen and Ding [93]

dp = 27-56 nm spherical Al2O3-water


Nu > 4.36 for fully-developed pipe flow with constant wall heat flux

Ding [94]

dp > 100 nm rodlike carbon nanotube-water


Nu increase more than 300% at Re = 800

Heris [95]

dp = 20 nm spherical Al2O3-water


Nu measured is larger than Nu of pure water

Williams [49]

dp = 46 nm spherical Al2O3-water

dp = 60 nm spherical ZrO2-water


Nu of nanofluids can be predicted by traditional correlations and models. No abnormal heat transfer enhancement was observed.

Kolade [37]

dp = 40-50 nm spherical Al2O3-water rodlike carbon nanotube-oil


Nu is apparently larger than pure based fluid

Duangthongsuk [14]

dp = 21 nm spherical TiO2-water


Pak and Cho (1998) correlation show better agreement to experimental data of Nu than Xuan and Li (2002) correlation

Rea [96]

dp = 50 nm spherical Al2O3-water

dp = 50 nm spherical ZrO2-water


Nu of Al2O3-water nanofluid show up to 27% more than pure water, ZrO2-water displays much lower enhancement.

Jung [90]

dp = 170 nm spherical Al2O3-water

dp = 170 nm spherical Al2O3-ethylene glycol

Rectangular microchannel/laminar

Nu increases with increasing the Reynolds number in laminar flow regime, appreciable enhancement of Nu is measured

Heris [97]

spherical Al2O3-water


Nu increases with increasing the Peclet number and φ, Brownian motion may play role in convective heat transfer enhancement

Kleinstreuer and Feng Nanoscale Research Letters 2011 6:229   doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-229

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