Figure 4.

Velocity vectors (on the left, →0.002) and isotherms (on the right) for Al2O3-water nanofluid at Ra = 8 × 104 with different volume fractions. (a) φ = 0.00, (b) φ = 0.01, (c) φ = 0.03, (d) φ = 0.05.

He et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2011 6:184   doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-184
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