Table 1

Systems engineering approach to nanofluid design.

ENGINEERING PARAMETERS

Nanoparticle material

Nanoparticle concentration

Nanoparticle shape

Nanoparticle size

Base fluid

Zeta potential/fluid pH

Kapitza resistance

Additives

Temperature


NANOFLUID PROPERTIES


Stability

■↓

x

?


Density

■↑

x

x

x

x

x

x


Specific Heat

■↓

x

x

x

x

x


Thermal Conductivity

■↑

■↑

■↓


Viscosity

■↓

■↓

■↑

x


Heat Transfer Coefficient

■↑*

■↑

■↓


Pumping Power Penalty

x

■↑

x



Relative Importance

4.0

6.25

3.75

5.0

5.25

4.0

2.0

2.75

3.75


    Symbols:

■- strong dependence; ○- medium dependence; ▲- weak dependence; x - no dependence; ? - unknown or varies from system to system; ⇑ - larger the better;⇓ - smaller the better; ↑- increase with increase in parameter; ↓- decrease with increase in parameter; *-within the linear property increase.

Timofeeva et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2011 6:182   doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-182

Open Data