TEM characterizations of single-crystalline nanoporous Nb2O5 nanotubes: (a) low-magnification TEM image of nanoporous Nb2O5 nanotubes; (b, c) high-magnification TEM images of nanoporous Nb2O5 nanotubes showing that these nanotubes have a nanoporous shell. The inset of Figure 5b shows the SAED pattern taken from an individual nanotube indicating that these nanotubes are single-crystalline; (d) HRTEM image of the porous shell of a single nanotube revealing (001) lattice planes. The red circles indicate that the shell of these nanotubes densely distributes nanopores.
Liu et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2011 6:138 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-138