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The origin of the red emission in n-ZnO nanotubes/p-GaN white light emitting diodes

N H Alvi*, Kamran ul Hasan, Omer Nur and Magnus Willander

Author Affiliations

Department of Science and Technology (ITN) Campus Norrköping, Linköping University, 60174 Norrköping, Sweden

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Nanoscale Research Letters 2011, 6:130  doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-130

Published: 10 February 2011


In this article, the electroluminescence (EL) spectra of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanotubes/p-GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) annealed in different ambients (argon, air, oxygen, and nitrogen) have been investigated. The ZnO nanotubes by aqueous chemical growth (ACG) technique on p-GaN substrates were obtained. The as-grown ZnO nanotubes were annealed in different ambients at 600°C for 30 min. The EL investigations showed that air, oxygen, and nitrogen annealing ambients have strongly affected the deep level emission bands in ZnO. It was concluded from the EL investigation that more than one deep level defect is involved in the red emission appearing between 620 and 750 nm and that the red emission in ZnO can be attributed to oxygen interstitials (Oi) appearing in the range from 620 nm (1.99 eV) to 690 nm (1.79 eV), and to oxygen vacancies (Vo) appearing in the range from 690 nm (1.79 eV) to 750 nm (1.65 eV). The annealing ambients, especially the nitrogen ambient, were also found to greatly influence the color-rendering properties and increase the CRI of the as - grown LEDs from 87 to 96.