Open Access Highly Accessed Open Badges Nano Express

Doping graphene films via chemically mediated charge transfer

Ryousuke Ishikawa12*, Masashi Bando1, Yoshitaka Morimoto1 and Adarsh Sandhu123

Author affiliations

1 Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552, Japan

2 G-COE Program on Evolving Education and Research Center for Spatio-Temporal Biological Network, 4259 Nagatsuta Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501, Japan

3 Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS), Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580, Japan

For all author emails, please log on.

Citation and License

Nanoscale Research Letters 2011, 6:111  doi:10.1186/1556-276X-6-111

Published: 31 January 2011


Transparent conductive films (TCFs) are critical components of a myriad of technologies including flat panel displays, light-emitting diodes, and solar cells. Graphene-based TCFs have attracted a lot of attention because of their high electrical conductivity, transparency, and low cost. Carrier doping of graphene would potentially improve the properties of graphene-based TCFs for practical industrial applications. However, controlling the carrier type and concentration of dopants in graphene films is challenging, especially for the synthesis of p-type films. In this article, a new method for doping graphene using the conjugated organic molecule, tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), is described. Notably, TCNQ is well known as a powerful electron accepter and is expected to favor electron transfer from graphene into TCNQ molecules, thereby leading to p-type doping of graphene films. Small amounts of TCNQ drastically improved the resistivity without degradation of optical transparency. Our carrier doping method based on charge transfer has a huge potential for graphene-based TCFs.