Figure 5.

Magnetic nanospheres have minimal cellular toxicity. Representative digital image of PC12 cells either not exposed (a), or exposed to magnetic nanospheres with iron concentrations of (b) 3.4 mM or (c) 16 mM for 48 h and double labeled with calcein AM (green) to show living cells and ethidium homodimer-1 (EthD1, red) to label dead or dying cells. Scale bar in (c) = 50 μm, and is valid for (a), (b) and (c). d Quantification revealed little cell toxicity up to 3.4 mM iron. Data are means ± standard deviations from three separate experiments, * p = 0.001 compared to cells not exposed to magnetic nanospheres (ANOVA and subsequent Tukey’s post-hoc). Representative images show intact nuclei with little evidence of fragmentation, condensation or blebbing for cells (e) not exposed or (f) exposed to nanospheres containing 3.4 mM iron. Scale bar in (f) = 10 μm, and is valid for (e) and (f)

Ghosh et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2009 5:195-204   doi:10.1007/s11671-009-9465-9