Continuous and Localized Mn Implantation of ZnO
1 Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, 3, 28049, Madrid, Spain
2 Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, 581 83, Linköping, Sweden
3 Departamento de Física Aplicada III (Electricidad y Electrónica), Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
4 Optronlab Group, Edificio I+D, Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo de Belén, 1, 47011, Valladolid, Spain
5 Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Carretera de Colmenar Viejo, Km. 15, Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid, Spain
Nanoscale Research Letters 2009, 4:878-887 doi:10.1007/s11671-009-9327-5Published: 9 May 2009
We present results derived from continuous and localized 35 keV55Mn+ion implantations into ZnO. Localized implantations were carried out by using self-ordered alumina membranes as masks leading to ordered arrays of implanted volumes on the substrate surfaces. Defects and vacancies in the small implantation volumes of ZnO were generated due to the implantation processes besides the creation of new phases. Rapid thermal annealing was applied in the case of continuous implantation. The samples were characterized by HRSEM, GIXRD, Raman spectroscopy and RBS/C. Magnetic characterization of the samples pointed out appreciable differences among the samples obtained by the different implantation methods. This fact was mainly attributed to the different volume/surface ratios present in the implanted zones as well as to the increase of Mn atom concentrations along the grain frontiers in the nanostructured surfaces. The samples also showed a ferromagnetic transition phase at temperature value higher than room temperature.