Figure 2.

The calculated relative defect formation energies ΔHf(α,0) of the neutral transition metal impurities in ZnO nanowires of different diameters and bulk case. (All the formation energies take reference to the formation energy of Cr doped in the bulk ZnO)

Shi and Duan Nanoscale Research Letters 2009 4:480-484   doi:10.1007/s11671-009-9260-7