Effect of Growth Temperature on Bamboo-shaped Carbon–Nitrogen (C–N) Nanotubes Synthesized Using Ferrocene Acetonitrile Precursor
1 Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005, India
2 Department of Physics, VSSD College, Kanpur, 208002, India
3 UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore, 452017, India
4 Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR, USA
Nanoscale Research Letters 2008, 4:197-203 doi:10.1007/s11671-008-9225-2Published: 10 December 2008
This investigation deals with the effect of growth temperature on the microstructure, nitrogen content, and crystallinity of C–N nanotubes. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) study reveals that the atomic percentage of nitrogen content in nanotubes decreases with an increase in growth temperature. Transmission electron microscopic investigations indicate that the bamboo compartment distance increases with an increase in growth temperature. The diameter of the nanotubes also increases with increasing growth temperature. Raman modes sharpen while the normalized intensity of the defect mode decreases almost linearly with increasing growth temperature. These changes are attributed to the reduction of defect concentration due to an increase in crystal planar domain sizes in graphite sheets with increasing temperature. Both XPS and Raman spectral observations indicate that the C–N nanotubes grown at lower temperatures possess higher degree of disorder and higher N incorporation.