Open Access Nano Express

Controlled Growth of WO3Nanostructures with Three Different Morphologies and Their Structural, Optical, and Photodecomposition Studies

S Rajagopal1, D Nataraj1*, D Mangalaraj2, Yahia Djaoued3, Jacques Robichaud3 and O Yu. Khyzhun4

Author Affiliations

1 Thin Film & Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, 641 046, India

2 Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, 641 046, India

3 Laboratoire de Micro-Spectroscopies Raman et FTIR, Université de Moncton-Campus de Shippagan, 218, boul. J.-D. Gauthier, Shippagan, NB, E8S 1P6, Canada

4 Department of Structural Chemistry of Solids, Frantsevych Institute for Problems of Materials Science, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 3 Krzhyzhanivsky Street, 03142, Kyiv, Ukraine

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Nanoscale Research Letters 2009, 4:1335-1342  doi:10.1007/s11671-009-9402-y

Published: 4 August 2009

Abstract

Tungsten trioxide (WO3) nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method using sodium tungstate (Na2WO4·2H2O) alone as starting material, and sodium tungstate in presence of ferrous ammonium sulfate [(NH4)2Fe(SO4)2·6H2O] or cobalt chloride (CoCl2·6H2O) as structure-directing agents. Orthorhombic WO3having a rectangular slab-like morphology was obtained when Na2WO4·2H2O was used alone. When ferrous ammonium sulfate and cobalt chloride were added to sodium tungstate, hexagonal WO3nanowire clusters and hexagonal WO3nanorods were obtained, respectively. The crystal structure and orientation of the synthesized products were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and their chemical composition was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The optical properties of the synthesized products were verified by UV–Vis and photoluminescence studies. A photodegradation study on Procion Red MX 5B was also carried out, showing that the hexagonal WO3nanowire clusters had the highest photodegradation efficiency.

Keywords:
Tungsten trioxide; Hydrothermal; Structure-directing chemicals; Nanowires; Nanorods; Photodecomposition