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A Novel Self-aligned and Maskless Process for Formation of Highly Uniform Arrays of Nanoholes and Nanopillars

Wei Wu, Dibyendu Dey, Omer G Memis, Alex Katsnelson and Hooman Mohseni*

Author Affiliations

EECS Department, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd, Evanston, IL, 60208, USA

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Nanoscale Research Letters 2008, 3:123-127  doi:10.1007/s11671-008-9124-6

Published: 4 March 2008


Fabrication of a large area of periodic structures with deep sub-wavelength features is required in many applications such as solar cells, photonic crystals, and artificial kidneys. We present a low-cost and high-throughput process for realization of 2D arrays of deep sub-wavelength features using a self-assembled monolayer of hexagonally close packed (HCP) silica and polystyrene microspheres. This method utilizes the microspheres as super-lenses to fabricate nanohole and pillar arrays over large areas on conventional positive and negative photoresist, and with a high aspect ratio. The period and diameter of the holes and pillars formed with this technique can be controlled precisely and independently. We demonstrate that the method can produce HCP arrays of hole of sub-250 nm size using a conventional photolithography system with a broadband UV source centered at 400 nm. We also present our 3D FDTD modeling, which shows a good agreement with the experimental results.

Microspheres; Lithography; Nanoholes; Nanopillars