Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Employed as Seeds for the Induction of Microcrystalline Diamond Synthesis
1 Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR, 00931, USA
2 Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR, 00931, USA
3 Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR, 00931, USA
Nanoscale Research Letters 2008, 3:65-70 doi:10.1007/s11671-008-9117-5Published: 24 January 2008
Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. X-ray diffraction, visible, and ultraviolet Raman Spectroscopy, energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy , electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to study the carbon bonding nature of the films and to analyze the carbon clustering around the seed nanoparticles leading to diamond synthesis. The results indicate that iron oxide nanoparticles lose the O atoms, becoming thus active C traps that induce the formation of a dense region of trigonally and tetrahedrally bonded carbon around them with the ensuing precipitation of diamond-type bonds that develop into microcrystalline diamond films under chemical vapor deposition conditions. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.